Cultural capital… have we missed the point?

Ut Vitam Habeant

So that they may have life


This is the motto of the University of Leicester (my alma mater) and it really chimes a chord with me. Not because it formed part of my life for 4 years, but because of its meaning to me., it really did give me life. As a child of a very working class family, growing up ‘on the wrong side of the tracks‘, with all the ACEs you could throw a stick at , going to university was probably not pre-destined for me. And this is a widespread tale for many. First in the family to go to university, against all odds (cue Phil Collins as my theme tune).

But it’s not as simple as going to university, you have to fit in. And I just didn’t.

Now, full exposure, I did my first degree at Aston University in Birmingham, (its motto is simply – Forward, apt really, because that’s what it did for me, propel me forward). And this is where the story starts. Indulge me if you will: I met my best friend there, from exactly the same background as me. We socialised together and had a great time. No one in our circle was playing polo or eating avocado. So, I never recognised a difference between me and the others. That was until the post-grad bubble was well and truly burst, and I realised the importance of cultural capital and the great divide it creates in society.

So what?

I’m not writing this blog this from my ivory tower of a success story, right from the screens of Dangerous Minds, or as if cultural capital is only important to fit in at university (although, I reckon that has some value). But, from the perspective of choice.

I have had many discussions with people about the concept of class. Now, my go to is that I don’t feel class is relevant to me, but I suspect that comes from a place of ignorance and naivety, rather than being truly informed, but I am rolling with it until I develop my ideas. But, why do I bring up class when looking at cultural capital? I’m glad you asked….


Here my friends, I present our educational elite, those who are being exposed to a knowledge and culturally rich curriculum, as well as having a background full of connections, experiences and expectations.

So, it leaves us with this:

working class

Why do we find ourselves in this situation, where we have an uneven distribution of of occupations, when we are living in a time of compulsory education for all?

This is why:

Those from the middle classes and above have:

  • Social codes, ways of behaving
  • Specific gestures
  • Ways of dressing
  • Polish
  • Connections
  • They are part of a club

Very little of which is taught in a regular education, but developed through a lifetime of experiences and exposure to the wider world, which our disadvantaged typically do not get.

Now, to clarify, I am not saying everyone should enter an elite occupation, or that an elite occupation is in anyway ‘better’ than any other occupation (fyi: teaching isn’t an elite occupation!) but, our young people should at least have a choice whether it is for them. Not to be chained by the shackles of their early life.

And what?

Cultural capital, the new buzz phrase we are seeing everywhere, from Ofsted framework, School Improvement Plans, curriculum documents and in every teacher discussion from now until forever.

In its rawest form cultural capital is the social assets of a person (education, intellect, style of speech, style of dress, etc.) that promote social mobility in a stratified society, according Bourdieu.

This has clearly been addressed by our inspectorate:

“A double unfairness is created when schools in disadvantaged areas feel
pressure to narrow their curriculums in order to focus on headline results. So
many disadvantaged pupils may not have access to cultural capital, both in the
home and then in their school. Phase 3 of our research showed that we are
better able to judge schools in disadvantaged areas on a level playing field if
we assess the curriculum rather than just assessing test or examination results.”

(School inspection update, January 2019)


“leaders take on or construct a curriculum that is ambitious and designed to
give all learners, particularly the most disadvantaged and those with special
educational needs and/or disabilities (SEND) or high needs, the knowledge
and cultural capital they need to succeed in life”

(Education inspection framework, May 2019)


I do not condone doing things for Ofsted, they really should be the servants of our children, not the masters of their fate. However, if their highlighting of the issue of cultural capital and its importance in leading in a successful life leads to greater educational exposure to all of things that make human culture so wonderful (art, music, sports, the list goes on) then I am all for it. As, I suspect, are most teachers. Particularly those serving the most disadvantaged, where that gap is the most explicit.

However, we really should be cautious of this ‘it’ thing in education. We have had so many flavours of the month, which are exactly that, and which the best bets?

Or, if it’s so great, how are we going to implement it to its full potential?

I expect many schools have jumped on the cultural capital band wagon, fantastic, hurrah. But is it though? It might be for some, but are they doing it justice? Or are they ticking a box ‘for Ofsted’?

Is everyone participating?

So, my question would be, if you are ‘doing’ cultural capital at your school, are you really doing it?

Those who are less exposed to cultural capital are less likely to see its benefit, therefore, less likely to opt in. So, you set up a well intentioned initiative, with lots of opportunities to be become culturally capital-ed  but, those who you want most to experience it, don’t. So not only are they not gaining experiences, thus widening the gap between them and their less disadvantaged peers, you are also teaching them that opting out is an option. So, they become an ‘opt-outer’. Habit set, from early on. In this instance, the double negative does not become a positive, it’s just doubly negative.

So, that brings me to this. If you are truly ‘doing’ cultural capital, it needs to be fully embedded in your day to day curriculum. Everyone should be exposed to it. That is the only truly equitable way to approach this, and potentially, the only way we can begin to close the cultural gap. But, my goodness, it would be worth it.

Ut Vitam Habeant

So that they may have life

(or at least many, many choices in it)

Back to work anxiety… Are you ok?


Reading Twitter this morning there is a massive swathe of people with that nagging dread of returning to work on Monday.

I have spent many Sundays, following holidays, or just the weekend, feeling this exact same dread, and from time to time I still do, depending where I am in the year, my life, or just how I feel about myself. So, it got me thinking, where does this dread come from?

  • Not having done enough work?
  • That pile of marking you gladly left with that promise of working through it during half-term?
  • ‘That class’ who are testing every ounce of your teacher self?
  • Not feeling good enough, the classic ‘imposter syndrome’?
  • Knowing you won’t be ‘there’ enough for your family?
  • Knowing you won’t be ‘there’ enough for yourself?

Now, I don’t profess to be a counsellor, I have had no training, but what I can do is offer some practical advice that has served me well so far.

this too shall pass.jpg

How likely is it to happen?

A while back I had a course of CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy), for me the biggest take away was three questions:

  1. What are you worried about?
  2. How likely is that event going to happen?
  3. What is the likely outcome?

Now, full disclosure, in a really anxious state, I have found myself asking these questions and replying:

  1. What are you worried about? Everything
  2. How likely is that event going to happen? Really likely
  3. What is the likely outcome? Absolutely terrible

But given time, normally a piece of paper (to actually articulate what I am thinking) and a chance to reflect, I can mostly distil those thoughts down to specific events. This means that they are tangible, manageable and most importantly, something can be done to to manage the feelings around them.

Again, I’m no professional, but this is the best advice I have been given.

So I can now do the following, as a very basic example:

  1. What are you worried about? Top set year 9 continually misbehaving, not being silent when I’m talking and not staying focused on a task.
  2. How likely is that event going to happen? Potentially, quite likely, so I will line them up in silence outside the room, stand them behind their stools, and reiterate school rules, plus my expectations. I will do this positively, assertively and with a real emphasis on the benefits to their learning. 
  3. What is the likely outcome? A positive outcome, most of the the class will be silent, and on task. I’ll  keep in mind that it is not the whole class, but a few that have not yet learned to follow the rules. If they make this choice, I will adhere to school policy and remove them from the environment for the sake of everyone (including them, they need to learn rules too). 


Every single person has had successes at work. These can be the small, everyday things you do without thinking about them, but you’ve had a positive impact for someone, yourself, a colleague, a student. Then, there are the bigger things, when you know you’ve done something great, someone congratulates you, you get a thank you card (I keep all of mine pinned up on my office wall, not to be a humble bragger, but just to remind me I’ve done something right, that, most of the time, I’m actually OK at what I do, even if it doesn’t feel that way at that moment).

My amazing friend Jo Jukes tweeted this recently, and this is a great strategy:Jo tweet.PNG

Answering the questions:

Not having done enough work?

One of my biggest woes was that my lessons wouldn’t be good enough, I hadn’t prepared enough and that, somehow, I would get caught out for the fraud I was. I’ve since realised a few things:

  • Even the most expert teachers feel like this, a lot of the time. This is pretty self explanatory, but if you don’t believe me, ask your most respected colleague, the best teacher you can think of, or the one on twitter who has it all together. I would bet whatever is in my purse (don’t get excited, I just counted, it’s £4.76, a Boots £3 off No7 voucher and an old parking ticket) that they would tell you they doubt themselves at times.
  • Not to listen to what my brain is telling me, it chats a lot of s*%t. See above as a prime example. We talk ourselves down, it’s often human nature, so get someone to talk you up. A friend, a relative, and in the absence of someone to do it for you, see above for counting your successes, right here, right now, name 3 things that you are great at at work. It might be hard, but you can do it.
  • Planning the best lesson doesn’t give you any guarantees: “The best laid plans of mice and men”… (Robert Burns.. just showing off now). But, in all seriousness, you can put your heart and soul into a lesson plan, with every eventuality accounted for, and lessons can go off on a tangent, they don’t get it, there’s a wasp in the room, or a really well timed fire drill.
  • Sharing is caring. There are a wealth of very generous people who will share resources on twitter, within your departments or a personal learning network. If you don’t know who these people are, or think they don’t exist, I assure you they are out there and they do. Give a planning shout out on twitter. Tweaking for your class is much easier than reinventing the wheel.

Caveat: Points 3 & 4: I am not saying not to worry about planning per se, or that it is unimportant, it is so important, but if it is causing you worry, whether it’s because you’ve not done it (no judgement, we’ve all been there) or because you can’t get your head around it (teaching some stuff is just hard, no matter how many times you’ve done it, and sometimes, it’s hard knowing how to pitch it), then stop. I know that is easier said then done. You being present in your lesson, with all of your knowledge, expertise, skills and training, is better than anything. So have faith in that, and think about your future planning when you are less worried.

That pile of marking you gladly left with that promise of working through it during half-term?

The ‘marking’ can wait. I am not advocating disapplying yourself from your school’s policies, but if you are marking for marking’s sake, then there are questions you need to ask. If the only time you have to do it is in extended periods in the holidays or evenings, then that is simply unsustainable. In the long term, I would suggest speaking to someone who can effect change and discuss a more manageable policy. A tired work force is an ineffective one. Change is needed.

In the short term (or advocate for long term if possible) use a whole class feedback template: Scan the books, essays, work, whatever it is, and find out what you need to know.

  • What have they learned?
  • what haven’t they learned?
  • what are their misconceptions?
  • What do I need to do it about it?
  • what do they need to do about it?

In a fraction of the time it takes to mark a set of work, you can find out the same information, give them the same level of feedback and inform your teaching. Not wasting the whole of your last day off being a slave to the red pen.

Here are two templates I have used, I cannot claim it is an original idea, but ones that I have adapted. I cannot remember where I saw the originals, so sorry to whoever you are, I’m not intentionally leaving you without credit, quite the opposite, I owe you a debt of gratitude! Update: It was Jo Tiplady @MissJoT

That class’ who are testing every ounce of your teacher self?

I once remember having the exact class I described in the ‘How likely is it to happen?’ section above. They were the bane of my life, and a huge cause of return to work anxiety. In one moment I am not very proud of, the class (and it felt like all of them, on reflection, it was about 6 of them) were being disruptive, it almost felt like they were ganging up on me, and I screamed “You will not defeat me”, now that loss of control aside, I stuck to it, they didn’t defeat me, and I used the questioning strategy explained in the section above to ensure I didn’t scream at them (or any other class) again. I wonder why I have written that, my lack of pride and all, and then I think, I bet someone else has a reincarnation of this class, somewhere, and that’s a rubbish feeling for everyone, the teacher, the kids in the class who want to learn, and the ones who don’t know how to yet. Anyway, I digress from the more general point of the blog.

But, if this is a more systemic problem and not just your top set year 9s, then speaking to a colleague might help. If they have the same class, are they having the same problems? If other teachers aren’t having the same problems with the class, be open to asking for their strategies. But, most importantly, stick to your school behaviour policy. If that is not effective, then I would suggest the issue is greater than you. If so, and if it is an option, speak to your SLT. If that’s not a possibility, to be blunt, I would find myself questioning whether that is the school for you. You don’t have to settle for feeling this way.

Not feeling good enough, the classic ‘imposter syndrome’?

I have eluded to this throughout this blog and it is something I think as a profession, we are uniquely susceptible to. I blogged about it previously (here) as something I think we can turn into an advantage, and that’s something I have tried to do.

Knowing you won’t be ‘there’ enough for your family?

This is endemic in our profession. Everyone else’s children are taken care of at the expense of your own. Every call is answered, email responded to, except the ones from your family and friends, because, for some reason, society tells us that our ‘vocation’ is all consuming and means that you give all of yourself.

Nope! Stop it Now!

We can be dedicated to our job, care for the children in our school, be a supportive colleague and a valuable employee, but you must set boundaries. Decide on a cut off time for work (either when you will leave school, shut the laptop off at home etc), but you absolutely have a right to a personal and social life, without any feelings of guilt. And again, I will return to workload, if your workload is so overwhelming that this does not feel possible then:

  • Ask for help (colleagues, twitter, PLN)
  • Try to find efficient ways of achieving the same results (eg, Whole class feedback)
  • Consider – do you need to change your work pattern or does your school need to change?

You have a finite amount of time in a day, just the same as everyone else, it is inhumane for a place of work to demand the majority of that time, without sufficient respite. Something has to give, either your work pattern, need for perfectionism, the workload from your school, or the school itself. What can you control?

Knowing you won’t be ‘there’ enough for yourself?

See above! You should be a priority to yourself, you can’t pour from an empty cup, so decide, what time will you dedicate to yourself this week? To read for pleasure, to take a long bath, to listen to your favourite album, to go for a run? Whatever your bag, do something just for you. Everyone gets to benefit from that.

Is it more than that?

I have committed so many sins in this blog, that I would probably scream at myself for. I don’t profess to know all of the answers, I know that a cheesy quote will not make everything better, and sometimes it can feel like there is nothing in your control to make it better. This is not a silver bullet, and I am most probably teaching many of you to suck eggs. But, if knowing someone else ‘gets it’, that you’re not alone in that feeling and that there some options, then I absolve myself!

When we feel that back to work dread there are positive, proactive steps we can take, however, if it is more than just the dread of a weekend or holiday coming to an end don’t feel like you need to go that alone. In Cassie Young’s blog she gives some really solid advice and links to professional services who can help:

Study skills: Are we making our students independent learners?

Can I start by saying I hate the title ‘study skills’ (I really want to write that as ‘skillz’, followed by that clicky hand gesture, you know the one where you hold your thumb and middle finger together and make that sound…) so if anyone can suggest a better name, give me shout!

I’m not saying that to be controversial, but I really think the idea of teaching our students to be studious is watered down by calling it ‘study skills‘. Like it’s a series of discrete things someone can do to achieve academic success. But it’s really not. Being an effective student is much, much more than that. It is a series of ingrained habits, developed and perfected over a series of years, learning from mistakes, successes and time spent; it is disciplined, practised and consistent, and students really need to know that. They should be explicitly taught how to study, how to develop good habits and so too do parents.

Again, including parents in this learning process is not something I say to be controversial, but to highlight the influence they have on students’ study habits. Knowing why independent study is important, how it can be used effectively, and how to avoid inefficiency is essential. A consistent message is key.

I have blogged previously on explicitly teaching metacognition in lessons, and study skills are an extension of this practice, to further develop our students as independent learners, beyond the classroom.

Being completely categorical that becoming an  independent learner is not about revision, the preconceived idea of the thing you do the night before test, hoping for the best. This is a clear set of habits effective learners have, that they do daily, weekly, regardless of forthcoming tests, they do it to learn.

Sharing Evidence

‘Start with why’ (Simon Sinek).

For students, staff and parents we share the evidence to support study skills strategies:


Using the model of working and long term memory, in an accessible format, then exploring the relationship between the two, is the initial ‘why’. Clearly stating that, for them to remember things there has to be a transfer into the long-term memory, and back again, repeatedly, until this is automatic. Doing this in conjunction with the forgetting curve really emphasises the purpose behind the structure and strategies of effective study habits.



For some students, this will feel completely alien to them, that they are learning to learn. Moreover, thinking hard is not an easy thing to do, if it was, we would all be doing it, and we’re not! There are a multitude of reasons for this, how the brain is ‘designed’, extrinsic influences and motivators. So, sharing evidence about motivation with students, and explaining that they need to feel success to feel motivated, is the second ‘why’:

“… the effect of achievement on self-concept is stronger than the effect of self-concept on achievement” (Mujis & Reynolds, 2011)

Study habits & anxiety

As educated professionals we would agree that developing effective study habits is the cornerstone to academic success, however, they provide much more advantage than helping secure academic outcomes. For many, if not most students, studying, learning and exam preparation is a stressful time and we are seeing an ever increasing incidence in anxiety in students. Studies have shown that test anxiety and study habits have a strong correlation. In this study from 2017, undergraduate students, who we may consider more expert learners than those in our classrooms, were surveyed on their study habits (which were assessed for effectiveness) and their test anxiety:

“Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that study habits have a significant effect on test anxiety and academic achievement. The findings revealed that students having effective study habits experience low level of test anxiety and perform better academically than students having ineffective study habits.”

(Numan & Hasan, 2017)

Even in expert learners, anxiety can be correlated to ineffective study habits, which is a really stark message for our students. Explicitly linking this for them,explaining that avoiding anxiety around tests and exams can be something in their control, is the final ‘why’. For many students, empowering them in this way generates a huge buy-in, knowing that they have complete ownership over it, can be intrinsically motivating.

Embedding habitual practice

Following the why, sharing a common language for study is crucial. This is shared with students through assemblies (and then embedded in lessons), staff (to embed into lessons) and parents (to embed at home). Now, this may seem ‘Like it’s a series of discrete things someone can do to achieve academic success’, which it probably is, the point being, it is a structure upon which students can practice the habits of successful learning, providing them a scaffold upon which to build. 

study cycle

This model has been adapted from Didcot Girls’ School.

NB: This is not intended to be a lesson structure, or SoW sequence, but something tangible students can use to structure their own independent study, away from lessons. To ensure their study sessions are efficient, and not time consuming with little reward (think of the student who spends hours upon hours writing and re-writing notes, reading and re-reading them, to still not be able to remember the major causes of WW1). 

Emphasis should be placed on the importance of the cyclic nature of study, it is not a one off event, but a process that needs to be  replicated many times, and should be revisited and refined to secure it.

Students are also guided to track their study for a subject or topic, have they condensed, memorised, etc, for a topic section? They also use the tracker to highlight any issues or effectiveness with a particular topic and strategy. tracker 1


What do you mean when you want a student to condense their notes? This is inextricably linked in the sharing of powerful knowledge (discussed so eloquently in @Rosalindphys blog on the work of Michael Young)  with students. They need to know what is core to their understanding, of a topic.

The core is the essential knowledge we want them to take away, the facts, the dates, the narrative, however, in lessons we often use ‘Hinterland’ to add context, hooks and relevance to that core knowledge. Adam Boxer talks about this beautifully here

So how we model this is imperative. Modelling the condensing of core knowledge must not be reductive to the knowledge itself, therefore, carefully selecting the content we include in our knowledge organisers is key. At my school, not all departments have begun work with knowledge organisers, therefore, we train students in using Cornell notes in their independent learning. 

Using Cornell note taking

Cornell notes are becoming increasingly popular, and for good reason. They give a clear structure, and emphasise the importance of core knowledge, questioning, and using retrieval for long term memory.

Modelling their use has been really valuable, in its basic structure, how to use it as a method for condensing and subsequent retrieval practice.

Basic structure

Cornell plan

How to use during a study session

cornell cover up

A modelled set of Cornell notes (year 12 biology.)

bio cornell 2




To emphasise that this a verb, something students need to do, cannot be overstated. Knowledge is not going to magically deposit itself in their long-term memory, without them doing something. Explicit emphasis is placed on the repetitious and disciplined nature of memorisation.


Using retrieval practice has become a bedrock of many people’s practice, and rightly so. Encouraging the effortful recall from long-term memory, and defeating the forgetting curve is a transformative concept. This has been employed in our lessons, curriculum and in the language we use with students. They are well versed in its use, and why it’s useful. However, emphasising the personal responsibility, in utilising retrieval practice as part of their own study, has been important, therefore, sharing evidence behind memory was powerful for them. Tom Sherrington has shared 10 ideas for retrieval practice here, which can be adapted for lesson use or independent learning.

Flash cards (Letiner method)

Students love a flash card! Talk to them about ‘revision’ and the first suggestion is flash cards. I’ve seen students with piles upon piles of flash cards, when asked what they do with them they say “Well, I  make them”… “But what do you do with them” … silence…. or “I keep them together so the corners don’t turn curl up”.

So, we spend time modelling the Leitner Method (proposed in the 1970’s by journalist Sebastian Leitner).

Students have their stack of flash cards, they self quiz, verbally, on paper or with a partner; they file their answers into piles of ‘know’ and ‘don’t know’. If they ‘know’ something, they then quiz every other day, then every week (if they continue to ‘know’ it) or if they ‘don’t know’ they would quiz each day, until they do. The time intervals of retrieval are not hard and fast, but the ‘know’ and ‘don’t know’ are key to identifying their developmental areas.

leitner method

Mind mapping & blind mapping

In lessons, mind maps are modelled, how to select core information to include on them and where to make appropriate links between or within concepts.

mind map

The the blind map is modelled, where students are given a skeleton structure of the mind map, which stem titles, or a diagram, to scaffold their retrieval, they then complete as much of it as possible from memory. Initially, I recommend they use a ‘lives’ system, so if they need to check back on notes, they may ‘lose a life’, recording this on their blind map to record how much they can actually remember. I would recommend they remove this scaffold as their practice develops.

blind map

Blank knowledge organisers

Where subjects have knowledge organisers, students are taught to self quiz using them. As part of their retrieval practice, they can use a blank knowledge to retrieve core knowledge, to structure their ideas into themes and identify aspects of a topic or unit that need further development.

blank KO


This involves taking their core knowledge and applying it to new contexts, or extended responses and is a further development of their retrieval.Key stage 4 & 5 students have access to exam board past paper questions, and essay titles (or sections thereof) for appropriate subjects. The study cycle itself is entrenched in developing effective independent learners, for learning’s sake, however, it would be remiss to ignore the inevitability of exams in year 11 and year 13. These are the key to future opportunity for many students, therefore, giving them appropriate disciplined knowledge of the exams is essential.

Time is spent in lessons modelling exam technique, how  exams are structured, looking at the literacy of exams, and what command words might mean for each subject. This is done in a context driven way, not just a list of command words and definitions, which are ultimately glued in books and never see the light of day again.

Alongside this, utilising mark schemes is taught, in order to aid students’ self-assessment of exam answers in their independent learning. Significant time is spent teaching this to avoid (or minimise) Dunning-Kruger effect.


The conclusion of the study cycle is the review section, where students do exactly what it says on the tin. They are guided to spend to reflecting on what they have done in a specific topic, where they have been successful, and where they need to develop. Using the previous stages of the cycle they are able to identify the thing they ‘know’ and what they ‘don’t know’ and how well they have been able to apply it (comparing their work to a mark scheme or exemplar answer).

The how and the when are utilised to identify where they will feed this topic area back into the study cycle, which strategies would be effective, or more effective, and a time commitment to doing it.

review 2

This is for everyone

In education we have long banded around the terms associated with ability, making a distinction between those who are and are not able. But what does that even mean? Able to learn? We are all able to learn.

“When we label students by ability, we limit their potential to learn”

(Clare Taylor, 2015)

Being explicitly clear that everyone is capable of forming effective study habits is a message carried to students, staff and parents. And this is never more important. They have the right to be independent from us as teachers, their current knowledge and the ties of their situation. Being an effective, independent learner is not the preserve of the elite, academically, socially, financially, but an entitlement of all of our students.

Exclusions… is this the real issue?

Earlier this year I saw a plea on twitter where someone asked “Does anyone teach statistics?”

My first thought was “don’t we all?” Initially, I had a wry smile and congratulated myself on my wittiness, but then it felt more profound. As individuals, of course, we teach the faces in front of us, but, the bigger picture, the system, it just boils down to stats, how sad is that?

I recently had an unrelated argument where I said “I don’t want to think about the statistics, they’re irrelevant to me” for which I was criticised and reminded of my trade. But, fundamentally, it’s true. We look at cohorts, patterns, national averages, benchmarks and grades and they are beheld as the beacon of reason. But they are not what really matters, we are in this trade to serve our students, not the numbers, not the powers that be, not OFSTED.

I’m not devaluing statistics, of course not, they serve a huge purpose and provide some perspective on the hugely complex world of education. But we’re more than that.

So I come to my point on exclusions:


A quick google search for synonyms is entirely negative, of course it is, exclusion, by its very nature, is a negative word. Certainly, to be excluded from a school has a huge stigma, both for the student and the school, and stigma are universally damaging. Here lies my argument. Do exclusions have to be negative? Or, could we view it through an alternative lens? Maybe, if we changed our narrative, we could change the outcomes for some of our most vulnerable students.

Let’s compare the education system with another huge system: Healthcare. Now I know that comparisons between education and medicine have been heavily criticised, but this analogy stands strong for me.

Generally speaking, most of us find ourselves attending our GP or A&E as our first point of contact. For the most part, our needs are served well by these highly skilled, educated professionals, who have the huge task of treating a myriad of conditions, and they do a brilliant job: we invest a lot on our health system, and as such we are rewarded with longevity of life.

Out healthcare system is internationally renowned, lauded as best practice, and is effective. We have a first point of contact, our GP or A&E doctor, who work within their remit and when needs are greater than their expertise, they refer to a specialist. By and large, this works brilliantly.

Now I think we can all agree that being under the care of a specialist is common sense. Your needs are complex, let the person who knows the most about those set of needs take care of them, as the likelihood is, your care will be fit for purpose, more effective and more efficient.

Further still, do we view our lovely 11 year olds as being excluded from primary school when they transition to secondary school? Of course not! We accept that primary schools have done a fantastic job with them up to that point, but secondary schools, are best equipped to deal with the needs of an adolescent. They have their subject specialists and slightly different systems to cope with their need. On the whole this works, and no one is in uproar about children leaving primary school to start their new journey at secondary school.

I appreciate this analogy might not be perfect, but I think if we change our perspective, instead of being outraged by exclusion rates, seeing it as a school “giving up” on that student and look at it as a stage in a process to give that student access to the highest quality care, from those who are truly experts: The best places to give them the best possible chance at a successful future. It’s not alternative provision but appropriate provision.

Change the histrionics of impersonal statistics on exclusion rates, that provide click bait, to focus on the individual and their support post exclusion (or referral?). Perhaps if we focus on developing a world renowned appropriate provision system, with the right funding, support and less stigma, we might stand a chance of changing the life chances of these young people.

So, instead of berating schools for excluding, scolding head teachers and principals for making one of the toughest decisions of their careers or shaming academy chains, why not use this energy to bring about change in the provision for our most vulnerable children, in the setting most specialised for them. Better funding, better training, and more provision in each area.

Research Leads… what is all the fuss about?

I love research! I love seeing how, why and when things work and for whom. It’s quite simply, amazing!

Prior to my career in education I worked in biological research, examining the biochemical pathways involved in immune suppression during chemotherapy. It was great. You ask a question, you lay out your experiment, control your variables and hey presto, you have a definitive answer: This causes this to happen and then this is the consequence. Clear cut. It’s pretty satisfying.

But education is not quite the same. People, schools, communities, we’re all different. You are rarely controlling your variables, certainly not all of them.

Which has raised a lot of questions and (rightly so) caused a lot cynicism about the whole field of educational research. I have endless discussions with non-teacher friends “What is a Research Lead?” they just don’t get the point of it: Everyone is different so why bother using research when you can’t get an answer that is ubiquitous?

Well, I come back to something I heard Steve Higgins say:

“It gives us our best bets.”

Poor CPD Provision

Over the years I have endured some numbing CPD. I especially remember one inset day, the school had paid for an expensive outside provider to deliver on tackling underachievement in pupil premium boys. Looking back, a better question was probably needed, but it was the opening gambit that really epitomised the “training day”. 

“I’ve been asked to come here to talk to you about raising achievement in pupil premium boys. But, if I could do that I would be a very rich man, so that’s not going to happen.” 

The day was a disaster, he was clearly ill-prepared, lacked knowledge, both of educational strategy and of the school’s context and was not fit for the job. But he was allowed to ‘train’ staff, collect a day’s fee and go on his merry way, leaving, at best, a group of staff none the wiser on how to tackle our school’s priorities or, at worst, people practising what he preached.

I’m still appalled that this was allowed to happen. Education and staff training is too precious to get wrong. Money, time and resources are all wasted to no avail. So, there must be a better way. Of course there is, that’s the Research Lead.


I recently saw this on a post from Russel Brand, now I am sure it was meant as some sort of inspirational quote, but, as consumers of evidence,we should all take this on board:


Because, what if you’re wrong? The stakes are too high.

I think it is fair to say that people enter into the education because they want to help young people. The trouble is, because of our background, family, education or even subjects studied, our views on how to best help our students are wide and varied. So, it is our job to look at the best available evidence to decide upon what is best for those that we serve in our context.

What worries me are a body of professionals who ‘believe’ what they are doing is right, just because. Give me the evidence you are right. How is what you are doing serving your students to have better outcomes? In our profession, we should not be self-serving, self-indulgent or self-righteous. We should serve our students to the best of our abilities, give them the best bet of success, and that means reviewing all the available research, not listening to one side of the story and being open minded to a range of views.

It is wiser to utilise time on something that has a body of evidence behind it, potentially decades of evidence, meta-analysis, robust challenge and peer review, than the thing the school up the road are doing and it probably looks good.

Now, there is a caveat to this, I would identify as a traditionalist. But, I am also open minded. I am open to discussion, I am open to being wrong. I am open to critically evaluating evidence that does not suit my line of thinking.

Critical consumer of evidence

Using research alone is not a silver bullet. We have to be a critical consumers of evidence, be cynical, be dubious, question everything! There is literally tonnes of research evidence out there, some of which may not be as reliable as others. Always look behind claims, check the reliability of studies, for example ask yourself:

  • What is the cohort size?
  • Are there any sponsors for the study? Who are they? Are they invested in the outcome?
  • Does this study fit your context?
  • How was the data collected?

Essentially you are sorting the metaphorical wheat from the chaff. Giving your school initiatives the best chance of success.

I firmly believe, whatever your stand point, whether you are a ‘trad’ or a ‘prog’, you should be investing your time in evidence. Not because you have a bias towards a certain school of thought, but our young people deserve to be given the best chance.

As educators we have a massive responsibility to the students in our care, and that can (and arguably should) involve questioning the educational status quo. Whether that be in your own classroom or on a whole school level. We should question all that we do, just because you’ve always done group work, for example, does that mean it is the right thing for your students? What is the evidence for and against usual practices, and most importantly, is there something more effective you could using your precious learning time for?

Improving CPD Provision

This is where being evidence informed and utilising Research Leads really does come into its own. We are really fortunate in our school; I am part of a Research Lead Team of 3: @MissJoT , @MissRegardless and I have taken an evidence based approach to our whole school CPD offering. Both in terms of its structure and its content. We have dedicated CPD to empowering staff in areas such as direct instruction, modelling, metacognition, memory and retrieval.

During this time we have seen a year on year upward trend in our outcomes. Of course, correlation and causation are not the same thing, however, it certainly does give us a platform to further evaluate what we are doing and build up further evidence of our approach.

Throughout this journey we have spent time looking at our school context and really working out what is appropriate for us here. We are really clear that we do not want to do things because they are fashionable. We do things because they are needed and there is strong evidence to support their efficacy.


We spend a significant proportion of time evaluating what we do and we are constantly refining our approach. This includes getting as much feedback from staff and students as possible.

It is fantastic to hear students talking about how much they enjoy their lessons, how they feel in control of their revision and impact this has their confidence.

I am not that teacher who posts on social media the “Look at what the kids got me” followed by preposterous amounts of cards, presents and “World’s Best Teacher” mugs (is that because I don’t get them…? I’ll leave you guessing on that one!) But, following a recent lesson on antibiotics and microbial growth a student said me:

“Miss, I love our lessons, this one was so interesting, you really know what you’re talking about, I’ve learnt loads.”

This was my lesson:



agar plate


Nothing whizz or bang, just me, the visualiser, a picture and lots and lots of Q&A. And this a story replicated across departments and classrooms across the school. We are free to teach, to do our jobs and students can learn without interference from time wasting activities that look good for show.

Staff morale has also been impacted. We are regularly updated by their positives in lessons, meetings and interactions across the school. Staff report that they feel empowered to do their job and not constrained by ideology that is not fit for learning.

So, I come back to my initial statement: “I love research! I love seeing how, why and when things work and for whom. It’s quite simply, amazing!” And this is a standpoint I stick by.

Whether you are a Research Lead, have Research Leads in your school or not, we can all be research informed and use that to influence our own practice, influence those around us and help guide change.

We are in a fortunate position in shaping the future of our students, and it is imperative that we effectively utilise the how, why, when and for whom in our schools. Giving them the best bet of success. For all of us, it boils down to this

Is there anything more important than being informed?






Explicit teaching of metacognition… are we doing it justice?

Metacognition is a huge buzz word in the world of education currently, but it’s hardly news. Research on it has been published for decades; but, early on in my career I mostly remember it being a fancy word that meant nothing to me but looked great on a job application. I’m not afraid to admit that I spent a considerable amount of time trying to decipher some level of understanding of it as an educational concept. Almost everything I found encompassed the immortal phrase: ‘thinking about thinking’; but what does that even mean? I had to dig deeper and eventually found “An awareness and understanding of one’s own thought processes.” This was slightly more useful, but hardly made me a better practitioner. Quite the enigma.

In 2018 I was fortunate to attend a series of Research Schools Network training days, run by Huntington Research School on “Metacognition and Self-Regulated Learning” and I finally developed a real insight into this mystical concept that had eluded me for years. It boils down to this:

“I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B; if it strikes me that I should double check C before accepting it as a fact.” (Flavell, 1976).

Developing metacognition has long since ranked highly on the EEF’s teaching and learning toolkit and time and time again meta-analysis after meta-analysis shows that metacognition can improve a student’s outcome (currently at +7 months). Therefore, after significant analysis of our own school’s situation, further developing our students’ metacognitive abilities is the journey we set out on.

As a consequence, I have spent a long time reflecting on myself as a student, and think it’s fair to say that I am a far better learner now that I am a teacher than I ever was at school, college or university. Not because I didn’t want to learn, I was a massive geek, but I just lacked the skills to be truly effective and to make the most of my time. I would spend hours endlessly reading, re-reading and highlighting textbooks. The copious amount of notes I made, I am convinced, single-handedly, contributed to the deforestation crisis. But why didn’t I know better? Well, no one ever taught me to be a good student, it really was left to chance, which is a disservice I believe we should avoid at all costs for our students today.

As part of our school CPD model this year we have invested a significant amount of time to train staff in what metacognition is; why it’s important; what some of the research says; how the EEF guidance report is relevant to them; and what it looks like in their subject area.

Ensuring staff are up-skilled in their own comprehension of this was first priority, explicitly showing them the ‘what’ of cognition, metacognition and how both of these are intrinsically linked to motivation. We then set about the ‘what does this look like’ in terms of students planning, monitoring and evaluating their own work.


PME explanationTaken from EEF ‘Metagnition & self-regulated learning guidance report).

It was important that subjects took ownership of this; what it looks like in maths is very different to what it looks like in history, RE or DT.  This involved them spending time observing students in their own or colleagues’ lessons, reviewing their curriculum and having departmental discussions to identify what the process of planning, monitoring and evaluating looks like for their subject area.

It is fair to say lots of staff struggled with this and lots of follow up sessions were needed to fully clarify what was meant by “planning, monitoring, and evaluating” until each subject area had a clear vision of ‘what this looks like for us?’ and more importantly, how could they ensure this was incorporated in what they do with students.

During this process we wanted to be very explicit that this shouldn’t be an arduous, add-on task, but something that is embedded into their day to day teaching (lots of which already was) and to be mindful of how to scaffold for those students where this process did not come as easily. Remember, metacognitive ability is not the reserve of older students or those who are “higher-ability” (shudder).

Our focus is to get all students ‘over the bar’ in every aspect of their education, their academic rigour and ability to learn: “Self-regulated learners are aware of their strengths and weaknesses, and can motivate themselves to engage in, and improve, their learning.” (EEF “Metacognition & Self-regulated Learning Guidance Report”, 2018)

In an expert learner, these processes are unconscious and automatic. ‘These learners are proactive in their efforts to learn because they are aware of their strengths and limitations and because they are guided by personally set goals and task-related strategies, such as using an arithmetic addition strategy to check the accuracy of solutions to subtraction problems. These learners monitor their behaviour in terms of their goals and self-reflect on their increasing effectiveness. This enhances their self-satisfaction and motivation to continue to improve their methods of learning.’ (Zimmerman, 2010).

In novice learners, however, it can be valuable to make them explicit, so we have introduced the following concepts (using Tom Sherrington’s “The Learning Rainforest” & Tom Sherrington and Sara Stafford, CTC, Aug 01, 2018)

Explicit Teaching of Metacognitive Strategies

Before I go any further, this is your friend, use it wisely, use it widely.



  • Make your thought processes explicit to students, verbalise your thinking, show them how the expert tackles a problem
  • Produce real-time examples
  • Model, model, model! Use the visualiser, show them how to do it in the format they have, reduce their cognitive load!
  • Explaining, questioning and giving feedback – make this a highly interactive process
  • Check for understanding before moving to a guided practice phase; scaffold the support, guided by students’ needs.

Throughout this process explaining your decision making is key:

  • Why you chose that strategy
  • Why that is a good paragraph opener
  • Why you chose that piece of equipment
  • Why did you sequence your thoughts that way

By doing so you are truly articulating what it’s like to think like an expert, and they can replicate that process.

I vividly remember being an undergraduate, sitting in a cell biology lecture desperately trying to learn  the functionality of Okazaki fragments (involved in DNA replication). It was a complex theory and one which I really struggled to comprehend (I still do now in all truthfulness), but, on reflection, there was no ‘strategy’ taught, no modelling of it as a concept, merely words that could have come straight from a textbook. No wonder it was difficult for me to understand. I had some metacognitive strategies, but they weren’t well developed, nor were they suited to the cognition that was supposed to be taking place in the room. For me, the cycle was broken.

This example, adapted from EEF guidance report, demonstrates how questioning could be structured to support a student in planning, monitoring and evaluating their work:

metacog slide

As the report highlights: “These prompts must accompany instruction in the relevant specific cognitive strategies […] In this example, pupils will only be able to consider these questions and approaches if they understand the importance of perspective and the different techniques”, ie the cognition (knowledge) is the overriding factor in the metacognition of the student.

These essential steps in explicit teaching of metacognition are the bedrock to this process; but my question remains: “Are we doing it justice?”

I still have students making endless notes for their revision, because they wanted to work hard and ‘look like they’re doing something”.  They are not planning effective strategies, monitoring how they are progressing towards deep understanding or evaluating their effectiveness. Why?

I believe this lies in the societal expectations of effective study, instant gratification and how parents reflect on their own education. In order to crack this, it is imperative to encourage parental engagement in the process, but more importantly, parental faith in your expertise: Give parents the knowledge of how to do it effectively, the tools to support their child, and the why of its benefit and the perfect trinity is in place: teacher, student & parent. Thus making it a habitual process through all aspects of their life; it’s not just the classroom where this takes place. It’s entrenched throughout their everyday.

This is particularly true for those students who are our most vulnerable, who may not come to our lessons with this prerequisite. Let’s teach them to be students, good ones, all of them.

Developing the attributes of a successful learner is so important, we must do it justice and not allow this to boil down to some beautifully laminated posters that half hang off a classroom wall, or are stuck in teacher’s planner, never to be considered whilst actually planning. It should be entrenched in all that we do for our students.

Academically, I have been successful, I’ve worked hard but I’ve not worked smart. I look back on hours spent in the library, notes after notes after notes, and I shudder to think of how I could have been so much more efficient. It’s our responsibility to ensure our students do not have this same experience and have the cognitive and metacognitive ability to regulate their learning, make the right decisions for their method of working and have the best chance of success in this ever competitive world.

lets keep going

Impostor syndrome… is it so bad?




Noun: impostor: a person who pretends to be someone else in order to deceive others, especially for fraudulent gain.

I’ve recently read the big hit by Adam Kay “This is going to hurt” which outlines his life as a junior doctor. One the biggest themes running throughout* is his feelings of being less than adequate to do his job. One that he trained for 5 years to do! He was routinely in situations diagnosing and treating patients where Google felt like his only ally. He well and truly had imposter syndrome. It occurred to me, if a doctor (well he’s no longer on the GMC, so he could afford to be more honest!) could own up to these feelings, when his action or inaction could literally mean life or death, I think owning up to and owning imposter syndrome as a teacher is doable. (*the other major theme is the absolute annihilation of the NHS by an inadequate Health Secretary, but this blog is not the place for that!)

I had always accepted impostor syndrome as part of the job, especially as an early career teacher, but, I assumed that this would soon fade with time, and I would soon be part of the omniscient elite of ‘experienced teachers’.

So, you try to become that: The experienced teacher.

And now I’m a Research Lead, and apparently part of this crew! A big part of this remit is to plan and deliver whole school CPD around the school’s development plan. So here I find myself standing in front of peers, delivering sessions. Eyes staring hoping for a glimpse of something new, exciting, useful even. We’ve all been there, dry mouthed, with an empty head and long silence where your words should be. Who am I to stand in front of these people, what did I know that could offer any value to their practice?

Having received training and CPD by people whose unwavering confidence could outrank the likes of Donald Trump, what am I doing trying to fill those shoes?

I vividly remember delivering my first ever whole school CPD session (at my first school), the focus was AfL. I’d been teaching little more than 18 months, but I was keen and eager and a good puppet for someone’s agenda. Standing there shaking, geed on by an enthusiastic Head “Go on Louise, you can do this”, so I ploughed on, robotic voice and beads of sweat adding to the effect. I was a real impostor. I had no real understanding of AfL, I just knew what I’d been told to say. It was their agenda, not mine, but I wanted to impress. I had no place there, I spouted out something around exit tickets, thought triangles and brain dumps, but was it of any use? I highly doubt it. I was unconvincing because I was unconvinced.

During ResearchEd national conference, 2018, I witnessed a debate between some of education’s elite, Mark Enser, Clare Sealy, and Sri Pavar (to name a few), examining “What should a 21st century curriculum look like?”  chaired by Christine Counsell, and I couldn’t help but feel awe struck at the knowledge oozing from every pore. Not only knowledge, but passion and the ability to retort on a pin head. The impostor syndrome strikes again. To the outside world, we were the same species, but so different in this habitat.

It really struck a chord when Sri Pavar discerned that a student’s ability to join in on the “conversation” of science is a rite of passage, as opposed to merely accepting facts laid out before them. So when is a teacher’s rite of passage? Upon completing ITT, submitting a Master’s thesis, time served? Or ever? Will I/we always feel like impostors? Even the most confident of colleagues experience it. But why and to what purpose?

As a biologist, I teach a whole host of biological concepts, all of which confer some kind of advantage to survival to the organism. So that got me thinking, what is the advantage of impostor syndrome? There must be one.

After much soul searching, I believe I have found the advantage to me:

My doubts have made me:

  • Read more, thus develop my knowledge and understanding of the learning processes
  • Communicate with colleagues on the best strategies for learning, both subject-specifically and purely pedagogical.
  • Question everything! *

I see so many posts from teachers talking about the dreaded imposter syndrome and I am almost certain they have no reason to feel that way. But in the climate of performance related pay, high stakes observations, media scrutiny and a general political trend of teacher bashing, is it any wonder so many of us feel this way? The feeling of inadequacy is a powerful weapon for those who do not want teachers to be empowered. Whether it be to use specific instructional strategies, behaviour management techniques, lead a school to success or to simply do our jobs! But, in the immortal words of Sir Francis Bacon “Knowledge is power” and knowing the effect imposter syndrome can have, and, more importantly, how it can be an advantage, is key.

Reflecting on my doubts, they have been far from crushing, but eye-opening to a whole world of professional development, I once didn’t even know existed. The process of teaching is a complex spider’s web of variables and nuance, making it an unsolvable Rubix Cube. But isn’t it great to have such a wealth of knowledge at our fingertips and the confidence in our misunderstandings to embrace it?

So, are we all always impostors? Or, would a more accurate description be an eternal work in progress?

* Especially this blog post! It’s been in my drafts since October, 2018!